As reported by an worldwide research team, the source of this particle lies in a galaxy almost four billion light years away: it is a very big black hole in the constellation of Orion. One of the two papers published Thursday in Science on the findings involves 16 teams comprising more than 1,000 scientists. These particles come down on is from our host star sun, however, it can also come from the other sources that don't belong to our solar system.
The observation campaign, in which research scientists from Germany played a key role, is a decisive step towards solving a riddle that has been puzzling scientists for over 100 years, namely that of the precise origins of so-called cosmic rays, high-energy subatomic particles that are constantly bombarding Earth's atmosphere.
A new way to look at the universe - using high-energy particles called "neutrinos" - is opening up thanks to the work of a Drexel faculty member and her colleagues working with a South Pole observatory.
Wisconsin physicist and ice cube neutrino observatory chief scientist Francis Halzon said that high-energy neutrino is produced by the same source, which is seen in cosmic rays, the highest energy particles are ever seen, but vary in an important honor.As charged particles, cosmic rays can not be seen directly at their source because strong magnetic fields in space change their trajectory. Also, neutrinos are scarcely absorbed.
That jet contained neutrinos - subatomic particles so tiny and hard to detect they are nicknamed "ghost particles".
On Sept. 23, only 13 hours after the initial alert, the recently commissioned ASAS-SN unit at McDonald Observatory in Texas mapped the sky in the area of the neutrino detection. The need to ship all of the components to build the detector in the holds of military cargo aircraft, as well as the development of hot-water drilling techniques required to install instruments into the ice sheet, make NSF's IceCube, which became operational in 2010, the culmination of a uniquely challenging scientific and logistical endeavor. Collisions between high-energy neutrinos and atomic nuclei are very rare but produce an unmistakable signature - a characteristic cone of blue light that is mapped through the detector's grid of 5,000 photomultiplier tubes. These extremely high-energy cosmic rays can be created only outside our galaxy and their sources have remained a mystery until now. However, these neutrinos appeared to be arriving from random directions across the sky. "Through the neutrino recorded on 22 September, we have now managed to identify a first source". Which means it had been produced by a proton that had been a booster to that energy, almost 50 times the energy delivered by the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the biggest particle accelerator on Earth.
Detecting the highest energy neutrinos requires a massive particle detector, and the National Science Foundation-supported IceCube observatory is the world's largest.
Beginning in the late 19th century, astronomers began observing invisible wavelengths, from radio waves to gamma rays, bands on the electromagnetic spectrum that are determined by the amount of energy their photons carry.
Cosmic neutrinos come from high-energy sources, like hot stars or supernovas. Presumably it is some kind of supermassive black hole rumbling in the heart of that distant galaxy. These cosmic particles are uncharged, unlike cosmic rays.
Then, a space observatory called Fermi-LAT reported that the direction of the neutrino was in line with a known gamma-ray source in an active state: the blazar TXS 0506+056, making the blazar a highly likely candidate for the neutrino source.