Payet finally missed out his chance of shining in Russian Federation, as Deschamps feared a risk of relapse of the injury despite a three-week recovery.
Elsewhere, Manchester City left-back Benjamin Mendy was called up despite having hardly featured for Pep Guardiola's side since returning from a serious knee injury.
Former Blackburn Rovers and Stoke City midfielder Steven N'Zonzi is included, while former Newcastle United forward Florian Thauvin and ex-Crystal Palace goalkeeper Steve Mandanda, who are both now at Marseille, also make the cut. "I have put my faith in players who have responded to that, and the squad comes before everything else", Deschamps said.
France are in Group C alongside Australia, Peru and Denmark.
France have three warm-up games ahead of the World Cup - against the Republic of Ireland on May 28, Italy four days later and the United States on June 9.