Rose was involved in some of his side's best attacking play as Harry Kane and Son Heung-min scored second-half goals to fire Spurs to victory after they had gone 1-0 down to Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang's opener.
The South Korean now has eight goals in 10 games against Dortmund, a record that stretches across three different clubs - Hamburg, Bayer Leverkusen and Tottenham.
The result means Tottenham head into the last 16 as winners of Group H, ahead of European champions Real Madrid, with one match to spare.
The result also comes as a timely boost to morale following Saturday's gut-wrenching defeat at Arsenal. They will have to sweat it out on the last matchday to see if they can finish third and claim a spot in the Europa League.
As for Dortmund, Aubameyang was recalled after being dropped for disciplinary reasons and former Manchester United midfielder Shinji Kagawa started in midfield.
Yarmolenko chipped a weighted pass over the Tottenham defence for Aubameyang six minutes later, but the Gabonese striker side-footed his shot wide to the right of the net with only Lloris to beat. "It is good for him to get the feelings of being able to score again". Roman Buerki had to be alert to deny Christian Eriksen, and then made a brilliant save to thwart Eric Dier, whose effort was headed for the top corner.
Pochettino could have opted to rest players given even a win over Apoel next month would have secured first place.
From there it was all Spurs, Eriksen, Alli and the busy Harry Winks controlling possession and restricting Dortmund to the occasional foray on the break.
Rose certainly justified his place with a dynamic display down the left while Alli set up Son's victor, having danced between two Dortmund defenders out wide and then provided the cut-back.
Buerki was taken off on a stretcher before the end after Fernando Llorente connected with his head while going for the ball.
Travelling Spurs fans sang "Are you watching, Arsenal?" long before the final whistle in Dortmund.